New University of Otago, Christchurch, research has identified common factors in the serious childhood behavioural conditions, Conduct Disorder (CD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), including maternal smoking during pregnancy and exposure to family violence. The study examined the influence of a number of common childhood social and environmental factors which contribute to the development of CD and ODD.
It found the two disorders had several factors in common:
low family socioeconomic status;
childhood exposure to physical abuse, sexual abuse or interparental violence;
maternal smoking during pregnancy;
and affiliation with deviant (delinquent and substance using) peers.
CD and ODD are behaviour disorders which emerge in childhood and have been shown to have adverse effects on mental health and psychosocial adjustment in adolescence and early adulthood.